News report 1
(1) A poisonous fish which has a sting strong enough to kill a human is invading the Mediterranean, warn the scientist.The International Union for the Conservation of Nature has raised concerns after the poisonous fish was spotted in the waters around Turkey, Cyprus and the eastern Mediterranean.Native to the South Pacific and Indian Ocean, the potentially deadly fish has poisonous barbs and an painful sting capable of killing people.Although fatalities are rare, the stings can cause extreme pain, and stop people breathing.The fish, also known as the Devil Firefish, is a highly invasive a species, (2) and environmentalists fear its arrival could endanger other types of marine life.After being spotted in the Med, a marine scientist says: "The fish is spreading, and that's a cause for concern.”
Q1: What is reported in the news?
D. A deadly fish has been spotted in the Mediterranean waters.
Q2: What is the environmentalist concern about the spread of devil fire fish in the Mediterranean?
B. It could pose a threat to other marine species.
News Report 2
(3)Almost half the center of Paris will be accessible only by foot or bicycle this Sunday to mark World-Car-Free Day. (4) This is in response to rising air pollution that made Paris the most polluted city in the world for a brief time. Mayor Ann Ethogo promoted the first World-Car-Free Day last year. Ethogo also has supported a Pairs-briefs-Day on the first Sunday of every month. Paris clears traffic from eight lanes of the main road. About 400 miles of streets will be closed to cars. It is expected to bring significant reduction in pollution levels. (4) Last year's Car-Free Day showed a 40% drop in pollution levels in some parts of the city. According to an independent air pollution monitor, reports the guardian and sound levels dropped by 50% in the city center.
Q3: What will happen on World-Car-Free-Day in Paris?
C. About half of its city center will be closed to cars.
Q4: What motivated the mayor of Paris to promote the first World-Car-Free Day in her city?
D. The rising air pollution in Paris.
News Report 3
(5) A Philippine fisherman was feeling down on his luck when a house fire forced him to clear out his possessions and change locations. Then, a good luck charm that he kept under his bed changed his life. The unidentified man fished out a giant pearl from the ocean when his anchor got stuck on the rock while sailing off a coastal island in the Philippines 10 years ago. (6) When he was forced to sell it, (7) the shocked tourist agent at Puerto Francesca told him that the ￡77 giant pearl that he had kept hidden in his run-down wooden house was the biggest pile in the world, which was valued at ￡76 million. The pearl of Allah, which is currently on display in a New York Museum, only weighs 14 pounds. That is 5 times smaller than the pearl that the fisherman just handed in. The monstrous pearl, measured at 1 foot wide and 2.2 feet long, is going to be verified by local experts and international authorities before hopefully going on display to attract more tourists in the little town.
Question 5. What happened to the Philippine fisherman one day?
A. His house was burnt down in a fire.
Question 6. What was the fisherman forced to do?
C. Sell the pearl he had kept for years.
Question 7. What did the fisherman learn from the tourist agent?
B. His monstrous pearl was extremely valuable.
W: Mr. Smith, it's a pleasure meeting you.
M: Nice to meet you,too. What can I do for you?
W: Well, I'm here to show you what our firm can do for you. Astro Consultant has branches in over 50 countries, offering different business services. (8) We are a global company with 75 years of history and our clients include some of the world's largest companies.
M: Thank you, Mrs. Houston. I know Astro Consultant is a famous company, but you said you would show me what you could do for me. Well, what exactly can your firm do for my company?
W: We advise businesses on all matters—from market analysis to legal issues. Anything of business like yours could need, our firm offers expert advice. Could I ask you, Mr. Smith, to tell me a little about your company and the challenges you face? That way, I could better respond as to how we can help you.
M: OK, sure. (9) This is a family business started by my grandfather in 1950. We employed just over 100 people. We manufacture an export stone for buildings and other constructions. Our clients usually want a special kind of stone cut in a special design. That's what we do in our factory. (10) Our main challenge is that our national currency is rising and we're losing competitive advantage to stone producers in India.
W: I see. that's very interesting. (11) I would suggest that you let us first conduct a financial analysis of your company, together with an analysis of your competitors in India. That way we could offer the best advice on different ways forward for you.
Q8. What do we learn about the woman's company?
A. It boasts a fairly long history.
Q9. What does the man say about his own company?
D. It is a family business.
Q10. What is the main problem with the man's company?
B. Losing the competitive edge.
Q11. What does the woman suggest doing to help the man’s company?
D. Conducting a financial analysis for it.
W: (12) Wow, Congratulations, Simon. The place looks absolutely amazing.
M: Really? You think so?
W: Of course, I love it! It looks like you had a professional interior designer. But you didn't, did you?
M: No. I did it all by myself—with a little help from my brother Greg. He's actually in the construction business, which was really helpful.
W: Well, honestly, I'm impressed. I knew I could probably repaint the walls in my house over a weekend or something, but not a full renovation. Where did you get your ideas? I wouldn't know where to start.
M: (13) Well, for a while now, I've been regularly buying home design magazines every now and then, and say the picture I liked. Believe it or not, I had a full notebook of magazine pages. Since my overall style was quite minimal, I thought and hoped the whole renovation wouldn't be too difficult. And sure enough, with Greg's help,it was very achievable.
W: Was it very expensive? I imagine a project like this could be.
M: (14) Actually, it was surprisingly affordable. I managed to sell a lot of my old furniture, and put that extra money towards the new material. Greg was also able to get some discount of materials from a recent project he was working on as well.
W: Great. If you don't mind, I'd like to pick your brain a bit more. Jonathan and I are thinking of renovating our sitting room, not the whole house—not yet anyway. (15) And we'd love to get some inspiration from your experience. Are you free to come over for a coffee early next week?
Question 12. What do we learn about the woman from the conversation?
B. She is really impressed by the man’s house.
Question 13. Where did the man get his ideas for the project?
C. From home design magazines.
Question 14. What did the man say about the project he recently completed?
A. The cost was affordable.
Question 15. Why does the woman invite the man to her house next week?
D. She wants him to share his renovation experience with her.
(16) Removing foreign objects from ears and noses costs England almost￡3 million a year, a study suggests. Children were responsible for the vast majority of cases. 95% of objects removed from noses, and 85% from ears. Every year, an average of 1,218 nose，and 2,479 ear removals took place between 2010 and 2016. (17) According to England's hospital episodes statistics, children aged 1 to 4 were the most likely to need help from doctors for a foreign object in their nose. 5 to 9 -year-olds come to the hospital with something in their ears the most.Jewelry items accounted for up to 40% of cases in both the ears and noses of children. Paper and plastic toys for the items removed next most from noses. Cotton buds, and pencils were also found in years.
(18) According to the study, the occurrence of foreign objects in children is generally attributed to curiosity. Children have an impulse to explore their noses and ears. This results in the accidental entry of foreign objects. Any ear, nose and throat surgeon has many weird stories about wonderful objects found in the noses and ears of children and adults. Batteries can pose a particular danger. In all cases, prevention is better than cure. This is why many toys contain warnings about small parts. Recognizing problems early and seeking medical attention is important.
Question16 What does England spend an annual￡3 million on?
C. Removing objects from patients’ noses and ears.
Question17 What do we learn from England's hospital episodes statistics?
B. Five-to nine-year-olds are the most likely to put things in their ears.
Question18 What is generally believed to account for children putting things in their ears or noses?
D. They are curious about these body parts.
(21) Good morning. Today, I would like to talk to you about my charity Re-bicycle.
But before that, let me introduce someone. This is Layla Rahimi. She was so scared when she first moved to new Zealand. Does she struggled to leave the house? I would spend days working up the courage to walk to the supermarket for basic supplies. (19) After a few months of being quite down and unhappy, she was invited to join a local bike club. At this time, Re-bicycle got involved and gave Layla a second-hand bicycle. Within weeks, her depression had begun to ease as she cycled. The bicycle totally changed her life, giving her hope and a true feeling of freedom. (20) To date, Re-bicycle has donated more than 200 bikes to those in need and is now expanding bike-riding lessons as a demand source. With a bike, new comers here can travel farther but for almost no cost. The 3 hours a day they used to spend walking to and from English language lessons has been reduced to just 1hour.
(21) Our bike riding lessons are so successful that we are urgently looking for more volunteers, learning to ride a bike is almost always more difficult for an adult. And this can take days and weeks rather than hours. So if any of you have some free time during the weekend, please come join us at Re-bicycle and make a difference in someone’s life.
Question 19. What did Re-bicycle do to help Layla Rahimi?
A. It gave her a used bicycle.
Question 20. What is Re-bicycle doing to help those in need?
A. Expanding bike-riding lessons.
Question 21. What do we learn from the passage about Re-bicycle?
D. It is a charity organization.
Thanks to the international space station, (22) we know quite a bit about the effects of low gravity on the human body, but NASA scientists want to learn more.To that end, they have been studying how other species deal with low gravity, specifically focusing on mice. The results are both interesting and humorous. The scientists first sent some mice and especially designed cage to the international space station.The cage allowed them to study the behavior of the mice remotely from earth, via video.
As you’ll notice in the video, (23) the mice definitely seem uncomfortable at the beginning of the experiment.They move around clumsily, drifting within the small confines of the cage and do their best to figure out which way is up, but without success. However, it’s not long before the mice begin to catch on.They adapt remarkably well to their new environment, and even use the lack of gravity to their advantage as they push themselves around the cage. That’s when things really get wild. (24) The 11th day of the experiment shows the mice are not just dealing with the gravity change, but actually seem to be enjoying it. Several of the mice are observed running around the cage walls. The scientists wanted to see whether the mice would continue doing the same kinds of activities they were observed doing on earth.
Question 22 : What do NASA scientists want to learn about?
A. How animals deal with lack of gravity.
Question 23: What does the passage say about the mice at the beginning of the experiment?
C. They were not used to the low-gravity environment.
Question 24: What was observed about the mice on the 11th day of the experiment?
B. They already felt at home in the new environment.
Question 25: What did the scientists find about the mice from the experiment?
B. They behaved as if they were on Earth.
Questions 1 and 2 are based on the news report you have just heard.
1. A) A deadly fish has been spotted in the Mediterranean waters.
B) Invasive species are driving away certain native species.
C) The Mediterranean is a natural habitat of Devil Firefish.
D) Many people have been attacked by Devil Firefish.
2. A) It could add to greenhouse emissions.
B) It could disrupt the food chains there.
C) It could pose a threat to other marine species.
D) It could badly pollute the surrounding waters.
Questions 3 and 4 are based on the news report you have just heard.
3. A) Cars will not be allowed to enter the city.
B) About half of its city center will be closed to cars.
C) Buses will be the only vehicles allowed on its streets.
D) Pedestrians will have free access to the city.
4. A) The rising air pollution in Paris.
B) The worsening global warming.
C) The ever-growing cost of petrol.
D) The unbearable traffic noise.
Questions 5 and 7 are based on the news report you have just heard.
5. A) Many of his possessions were stolen.
B) His house was burnt down in a fire.
C) His fishing boat got wrecked on a rock.
D) His good luck charm sank into the sea.
6. A) Change his fishing locations.
B) Find a job in a travel agency.
C) Spend a few nights on a small island.
D) Sell the pearl he had kept for years.
7. A) A New York museum...
B) The largest pearl in the world...
C) His monstrous pearl was extremely valuable.
D) His pearl could be displayed in a museum.
Questions 8 and 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
8. A) It boast a fairly long history.
B) It produces construction materials.
C) It has 75 offices around the world.
D) It has over 50 business partners.
9. A) It has about 50 employees.
B) It was started by his father.
C) It has a family business.
D) It is over 100 years old.
10. A) Shortage of raw material supply.
B) Legal disputes in many countries.
C) Outdated product design.
D) Loss of competitive edge.
11. A) Conducting a financial analysis for it.
B) Providing training for its staff members.
C) Seeking new ways to increase its exports.
D) Introducing innovative marketing strategies.
Questions 12 and 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
12. A) She is a real expert at house decorations.
B) She is well informed about the design business.
C) She is attracted by the color of the sitting room.
D) She is really impressed by the man’s house.
13. A) From his younger brother Greg.
B) From home design magazines.
C) From a construction businessman.
D) From a professional interior designer.
14. A) The effort was worthwhile.
B) The style was fashionable.
C) The cost was affordable.
D) The effect was unexpected.
15. A) She’d like him to talk with Jonathan about a new project.
B) She wants him to share his renovation experience with her.
C) She wants to discuss the house decoration budget with him.
D) She’d like to show him around her newly-renovated house.
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.
16. A) Providing routine care for small children
B) Paying hospital bills for emergency cases.
C) Doing research on ear, nose and throat diseases.
D) Removing objects from patients’?noses and ears.
17. A) Many children like to smell things they find or play with.
B) Many children like to put foreign objects in their mouth.
C) Five-to nine-year-olds are the most likely to put things in their ears.
D) Children aged one to four are often more curious than older children.
18. ?A) They tend to act out of impulse.
B) They want to attract attentions.
C) They are unaware of the potential risks.
D) They ?are curious about these body parts.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.
19. A) It paid for her English lessons.
B) It gave her a used bicycle.
C) It delivered her daily necessities.
D) It provided her with physical therapy.
20. A) Expanding bike-riding lessons.
B) Asking local people for donations.
C) Providing free public transport.
D) Offering walking tours to visitors.
21. A) It is a language school.
B) It is a charity organization.
C) It is a counseling center.
D) It is a sports club.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
22. A) How mice imitate human behavior in space.
B) How low gravity affects the human body.
C) How mice interact in a new environment.
D) How animals deal with lack of gravity.
23. A) They were not used to the low-gravity environment.
B) They found it difficult to figure out where they were.
C)They found the space in the cage too small to stay in.
D) They were not sensitive to the changed environment.
24.A) They tried everything possible to escape from the cage.
B) They continued to behave as they did in the beginning.
C) They already felt at home in the new environment.
D) They had found a lot more activities to engage in.
25.A) They repeated their activities every day.
B) They behaved as if they were on Earth.
C) They begin to eat less after some time.
D) They changed their routines in space.
1. D. A deadly fish has been spotted in the Mediterranean waters.
2. B. It could pose a threat to other marine species.
3. C. About half of its city center will be closed to cars.
4. D. The rising air pollution in Paris.
5. A. His house was burnt down in a fire.
6. C. Sell the pearl he had kept for years.
7. B. His monstrous pearl was extremely valuable.
8. A. It boasts a fairly long history.
9. D. It is a family business.
10. B. Loss the competitive edge.
11. D. Conducting a financial analysis for it.
12. B. She is really impressed by the man’s house.
13. C. From home design magazines.
14. A. The cost was affordable.
15. D. She wants him to share his renovation experience with her.
16. C. Removing objects from patients’?noses and ears.
17. B. Five-to nine-year-olds are the most likely to put things in their ears.
18. D. They are curious about these body parts.
19. A. It gave her a used bicycle.
20. A. Expanding bike-riding lessons.
21. D. It is a charity organization.
22. A. How animals deal with lack of gravity.
23. C. They were not used to the low-gravity environment.
24. B. They already felt at home in the new environment.
25. C. They behaved as if they were on Earth.?
1. D) He did an unusual good deed.
2. C) Give some money to the waiter.
3. A) Whether or not to move to the state’s mainland.
4. B) It costs too much money.
5. A) To investigate whether people are grateful for help.
6. C) They held doors open for people at various places.
7. B) Most people express gratitude for help.
8. C) To enquire about solar panel installations.
9. D) He has a large family.
10. B) The cost of a solar panel installation.
11. D) About five year.
12. A) At a travel agency.
13. D) She wanted to spend more time with her family.
14. D) Two weeks.
15. A) Choosing some activities herself.
16. D) Pay a green tax upon arrival.
17. A) It has not been doing a good job in recycling.
18. B) To ban single-use plastic bags and straws on Bali island.
19. D) Its population is now showing signs of increase.
20. C) Commercial hunting.
21. D) To seek breeding grounds.
22. C) They consume less milk these days.
23. A) It is not as healthy as once thought.
24. C) They lack the necessary proteins to digest it.
25. B) It provides some necessary nutrients.
Fish is an indispensable dish on the eve of the Spring Festival, because the Chinese character for fish sounds the same as the character for “abundant”. Due to this symbolic meaning, fish is also given as a gift to relatives and friends during the Spring Festival.The symbolic meaning of fish is said to be rooted in traditional Chinese culture.The Chinese people have a tradition of saving, believing that the more they save, the more secure they will feel. Today, despite the fact that people are getting richer and richer, they still regard saving as a virtue worth carrying forward.
It is a Chinese tradition to have a family reunion dinner on the eve of the Spring Festival. The reunion dinner is not only the most important dinner of the year, but also the best opportunity for family reunion, especially for the family with its members living in different places. The dishes served at the reunion dinner are rich and varied, some of which have special meanings. For example, fish is an indispensable dish because the Chinese character for “fish” sounds the same as the character for “abundant”. In many areas of China, dumpling is also an important delicacy because it symbolizes wealth and fortune.
People who live in different parts of China have a variety of diets. Those in the north mainly eat food made with flour, while those in the south mostly eat rice. In coastal areas, seafood and freshwater products account for a considerable proportion in people’s diets, whereas in other areas, meat and dairy products are more common. Residents in Sichuan, Hunan and other provinces generally like spicy food, while people in Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces prefer sweet food. However, the taste of similar foods may be different due to various cooking methods.
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write on the topic Changes in the Way of Education. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.
Changes in the way of education
As the internet is developing so rapidly, the way of education keeps changing and new forms of education emerge surprisingly. Especially during the pandemic of corona virus,online education has become one of the most important ways of education throughout the world.
The changes in the way of education can be listed as follows.First of all, compared with traditional offline teaching activities, online education gives students the opportunity to study wherever they want, at home or in the park.Moreover, the cost of attending online courses is normally lower than that of offline ones. Besides, students can choose the perfect time when they are available to attend classes,instead of stubbornly fixing the time required without the possibility of doing any other important thing.
From my perspective, the changes in the way of education mainly lie in the good respects. As one of the fortunate students who live in the age of internet and can get access to online courses, I can’t help exclaiming: it is the best of times.
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write on the topic Changes in the Way of Transportation. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.
Changes in the way of transportation
As the intemnet is developing so rapidly, the way of transportation keeps changing surprisingly. New applications on transportation emerge abundantly, contributing to the fact that people' s lifestyle has been changed as well.
The changes in the way of transportation can be listed as follows. First of all, with the development of technology, the price of transportation is much cheaper than before. Moreover,compared with traditional ways of buying tickets, transportation applications and websites give passengers the opportunity to book tickets online without going outside to particular ticket offices. Besides, highspeed railways gradually replace the old-fashioned green trains, which can tremendously improve travelers comfort during the journey and shorten the time spent on the way.
From my perspective, the changes in the way of transportation mainly lie in the good respects. As one of the fortunate passengers who live in the age of internet and can get access to online service of transportation, I can’t help exclaiming: it is the best of times.
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write on the topic Changes in the Way of communication.You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.
Changes in the way of communication
As the intermet is developing so rapidly, the way of communication keeps changing surprisingly. New applications on communication and new social skils emerge abundantly, contributing to the fact that people’s lifestyle has been changed subtantially as well.
The changes in the way of communication can be listed as follows.First of all, people used to prefer talking to each other face to face.However, with social networking applications becoming increasingly popular, people are gradually used to communicating with others online. Moreover, making telephone calls, though expensive and inconvenient, was one of the most important ways to keep in touch with those far away. At present, with the popularization of social networking apps, the cost of texting or calling friends and relatives is much cheaper than before. Besides, intermet slang is more commonly used in people’s daily life.
From my perspective, we should not easily judge people’s ways of communication, whether they prefer face to-face communication or they would like to contact people via virtual world, if only the efficiency of communication would not be affected adversely.
When my son completes a task, I can't help but praise him. It's only natural to give praise where praise is due, right? But is there such a thing as too much praise? According to psychologist Katherine Phillip, children don’t benefit from 26 praise as much as we’d like to think."Parents often praise, believing they are building their child's self-confidence. However,over-praising can have a_27_effect,” says Phillip."When we use the same praise 28 , it may become empty and no longer valued by the child. It can also become an expectation that anything they do must be 29 with praise. This may lead to the child avoiding taking risks due to fear of 30 their parents.”
Does this mean we should do away with all the praise? Phillip says no."The key to healthy praise is to focus on the process rather than the 31 . it is the recognition of a child's attempt, or the process in which they achieved something, that is essential,"she says."Parents should encourage their child to take the risks needed to learn and grow”
So how do we break the 32 of praise we're all so accustomed to? Phillip says it's important to _33_ between "person praise" and "process raise". "Person praise is 34_ saying how great someone is. It's a form personal approval. Process praise as acknowledgment of the efforts to person has just 35 . Children who receive person praise are more likely to feel shame after losing," says Phillip.
26. B. constant
27. G. negative
28. K repeatedly
29. L rewarded
30. C disappointing
31. H. outcome
32. I .pattern
33. D .distinguish
34. N. simply
35 O. undertaken
The things people make, and the way they make them, determine how cities grow and decline, and influence how empires rise and fall. So, any disruption to the world's factories __26__.
And that disruption is surely coming. Factories are being digitized, filled with new sensors and new computers to make them quicker, more __27__, and more efficient.
Robots are breaking free from the cages that surround them, learning new skills, and new ways of working. And 3D printers have long __28__a world where you can make anything, any- where, from a computerised design. That vision is __29__ closer to reality. These forces will lead to cleaner factories, producing better goods at lower prices, personalized to our individual needs and desires. Humans will be __30__many of the dirty, repetitive, and dangerous jobs that have long been a __31__of factory life.
Greater efficiency __32__ means fewer people can do the same work. Yet factory bosses in many developed countries are worried about a lack of skilled human workers-and see __33__ and robots as a solution.
But economist Helena Leurent says this period of rapid change in manufacturing is a __34__ opportunity to make the world a better place. "Manufacturing is the one system where you have got the biggest source of innovation, the biggest source of economic growth, and the biggest source of great jobs in the past. "You can see it changing. That's an opportunity to __35__ that system differently, and if we can, it will have enormous significance."
26. K) matters
27. G) flexible
28. M) promised
29. L) moving
30. O) spared
31. F) feature
32. H) inevitably
33. A) automation
34. D) fantastic
35. N) shape
Trust is fundamental to life. If you cannot trust in anything, life becomes intolerable—a constant battle against paranoia and looming disaster. You can’t have relationships without trust, let alone good ones. Intimacy depends on it. I suspect more marriages are wrecked by lack of trust than by actual infidelity. The partner who can’t trust the other not to betray him or her will either drive them away or force them into some real or assumed act of faithlessness.
In the workplace too, trust is essential. An organization without trust will be full of backstabbing, fear and paranoid suspicion. If you work for a boss who doesn’t trust her people to do things right, you’ll have a miserable time of it. She’ll be checking up on you all the time, correcting “mistakes” and “oversights” and constantly reminding you to do this or that. Colleagues who don’t trust one another will need to spend more time watching their backs than doing any useful work. The office politics would make Machiavelli blush.
All this extra work—plus the work we load onto ourselves because we don’t trust people either. The checking, following through, doing things ourselves because we don’t believe others will do them properly— or at all. If you took all that way, how much extra time would you suddenly find in your day? How much of your work pressure would disappear?
26-30 CMGAO 31-35 JKFIH
26. C) essential
28. G) miserable
29. A) constantly
30. O) watching
31. J) records
32. K) removed
33. F) load
34. I) properly
35. H) pressure
Poverty is a story about us, not them
Too often still, we think we know what poverty looks like.
It’s the way we’ve been taught, the images we’ve been force-fed for decades.
The chronically homeless.
The undocumented immigrant.
The urban poor, usually personified as a woman of color, the “welfare queen” politicians still too often reference.
But as income inequality rises to record levels in the United States, even in the midst of a record economic expansion, those familiar images are outdated, hurtful, and counterproductive to focusing attention on solutions and building ladders of opportunity.
Today’s faces of income inequality and lack of opportunity look like, well… all of us.
It’s Anna Landre, a disabled Georgetown University student fighting to keep health benefits that allow her the freedom to live her life.
It’s Tiffanie Standard, a mentor for young women of color in Philadelphia who want to be tech entrepreneurs — but who must work multiple jobs to stay afloat.
It’s Sharon Penner, an artisan in rural Georgia, who worries about retirement security and health care options for senior gay women.
It’s Charles Oldstein, a U.S. Air Force veteran in New Orleans who would still be on the street if the city hadn’t landed a zero tolerance policy for homelessness among veterans.
It’s Ken Outlaw, a welder in rural North Carolina whose dream of going back to school at a local community college was dashed by Hurricane Florence — just one of the extreme weather events that have tipped the balance for struggling Americans across the nation.
It’s activists involved with Mothering Justice, a Michigan-based advocacy organization, who have heard the stereotypes and code words for way too long.
[D] If these are the central characters of our story about poverty, what layers of perceptions, myths, and realities must we unearth to find meaningful solutions and support? In pursuit of revealing this complicated reality, Mothering Justice, led by women of color, went last year to the state capital in Lansing, Michigan, to lobby on issues that affect working mothers. One of the Mothering Justice organizers went to the office of a state representative to talk about the lack of affordable childcare — the vestiges of a system that expected mothers to stay home with their children while their husbands worked. A legislative staffer dismissed the activist’s concerns, telling her “my husband took care of that — I stayed home.”
[E] That comment, says Mothering Justice director Danielle Atkinson, “was meant to shame” and relied on the familiar trope that a woman of color concerned about income inequality and programs that promote mobility must by definition be a single mom, probably with multiple kids. In this case, Mothering Justice activist happened to be married. And in most cases in the America of 2019, the images that come to mind when we hear the words poverty or income inequality fail miserably in reflecting a complicated reality: poverty touches virtually all of us. The face of income inequality, for all but a very few of us, is the one we each see in the mirror.
[F] How many of us are poor in the U.S.? According to the Census Bureau, 38 million people in the U.S. are living below the official poverty thresholds (currently $20,231 for a family of three with two children). Taking into account economic need beyond that absolute measure, the Institute for Policy Studies found that 140 million people are poor or low-income, living below 200 percent of the Census’s supplemental measure of poverty. That’s almost half the U.S. population.
[G] How many of us are poor in the U.S.?No matter the measure, within that massive group, poverty is extremely diverse. We know that some people are more affected than others, like children, the elderly, people with disabilities, and people of color.
[H] But the fact that 4 in 10 Americans can’t come up with $400 in an emergency is a commonly cited statistic for good reason: economic instability stretches across race, gender, and geography. It even reaches into the middle classes, as real wages have stagnated for all but the very wealthy and temporary spells of financial instability are not uncommon.
[I] LGBT seniors like Penner, for example, may have worked steadily throughout their lives but now faces hurdles in retirement because of a lack of health care or inclusive senior care facilities. Yet too many of us still cling to demeaning stereotypes about who poverty impacts, which affects how we live with each other and how we develop policy responses to the income inequality that has defined American life in recent decades.Simply put, the narrative that Americans tell themselves about poverty is badly flawed.
[J] The FrameWorks Institute, a research group that focuses on public framing of issues, has studied what props up stereotypes and narratives of poverty in the United Kingdom. “People view economic success and wellbeing in life as … a product of choice, willpower, drive, grit, and gumption,” says Nat Kendall-Taylor, CEO of FrameWorks. “When we see people who are struggling,” he says, those assumptions “lead us to the perception that people in poverty are lazy, they don’t care, and they haven’t made the right decisions.”
[K] Does this sound familiar? Similar ideas surround poverty in the U.S. And these assumptions wreak havoc on reality. “When people enter into that pattern of thinking,” says Kendall-Taylor, “it’s cognitively comfortable to make sense of issues of poverty in that way. [It] creates a kind of cognitive blindness — all of the factors external to a person’s drive [and] choices that they’ve made become invisible and fade from view.”
[L] Those external factors include the difficulties concomitant with low-wage work or structural discrimination based on race, gender, or ability. Assumptions get worse when people who are poor use government benefits to help them survive. There is a great tension between “the poor” and those who are receiving what has become a dirty word: “welfare.”
[M] According to the General Social Survey, 71 percent of respondents believe the country is spending too little on “assistance to the poor.” On the other hand, 22 percent think we are spending too little on “welfare”: 37 percent believe we are spending too much.
[N] “Poverty has been interchangeable with people of color — but [specifically] black women and black mothers,” says Atkinson of Mothering Justice. It’s true that black mothers are more affected by poverty than many other groups, yet they are disproportionately the face of poverty. For example, Americans routinely overestimate the share of black recipients of public assistance programs.
36.[E] That comment,says Mothering Justice director Danielle Atkinson,"was meant to shame"
37.[H] But the fact that 4 in 10 Americans can't come up with$400 in an emergency is a commonly cited statistic for good reason: economic instability stretches across race,gender,and geography.
38.[M]According to the General Social Survey,71 percent of respondents believe the country is spending too little on"assistance to the poor."
39.[J] The Frame Works Institute,a research group that focuses on public framing of issues,has studied what sustains stereotypes and narratives of poverty in the United Kingdom
40.[D] If these are the central characters of our story about poverty,what layers of perceptions,myths,and realities must we unearth to find meaningful solutions and support?
41.[F] How many of us are poor in the U.S.?
42.[N]"Poverty has been interchangeable with people of color-specifically black women and"black mothers,"says Atkinson of Mothering Justice.
43.[I]Negative images remain of who is living in poverty as well as what is needed to move out of it.
44.[E]That comment,says Mothering Justice director Danielle Atkinson,"was meant to shame"
45.[L] Those external factors include the difficulties accompanying low-wage work or structural discrimination based on race,gender,or ability.
The History of the Lunch Box
[A] It was made of shiny, bright pink plastic with a Little Mermaid sticker on the front, and I carried it with me nearly every single day. My lunch box was one of my first prized possessions, a proud statement to everyone in my kindergarten bubble: "I love Ariel." That clunky container served me well through first and second grade, until the live-action version of 101 Dalmatians hit theaters, and I needed—needed—the newest red plastic box with Pongo and Perdita on the front. I know I'm not alone here—I bet you loved your first lunch box, too.
[C] Lunch boxes have been connecting kids to cartoons and TV shows and superheroes for decades. But it wasn't always that way. Once upon a time, they weren't even boxes. As schools have changed in the past century, the midday meal container has evolved right along with them.
[D] Let's start back at the beginning of the 20th century—the beginning of the lunch box story, really. While there were neighborhood schools in cities and suburbs, one-room schoolhouses were common in rural areas. As grandparents have been saying for generations, kids would travel miles to school in the countryside (often on foot). "You had kids in rural areas who couldn't go home from school [for lunch] because it's just too hard to get back and forth, so bringing your lunch wrapped in a cloth, wrapped in oiled paper, in a little wooden box or something like that was a very long-standing rural tradition," says Paula Johnson, food history curator at the Smithsonian National Museum of American History in Washington, D.C.
[F] City kids, on the other hand, went home for lunch and came back. Since they rarely carried a meal, the few metal lunch pails on the market were mainly for tradesmen and factory workers. After World War II, a bunch of changes reshaped schools—and lunches. More women joined the workforce. Small schools consolidated into larger ones, meaning more students were farther from home. And the National School Lunch Act in 1946 made cafeterias much more common. Still, there wasn't much of a market for lunch containers—yet. Students who carried their lunch often did so in a re-purposed pail or tin of some kind.
[H] And then everything changed. The year: 1950. You might as well call it the Year of the Lunch Box, thanks in large part to a genius move by a Nashville-based manufacturer, Aladdin Industries. The company already made square metal meal containers, the kind workers carried, and some had started to show up in the hands of school kids (lunch pail, meet lunch box).
[I] But these containers were really durable, lasting years on end. That was great for the consumer, not so much for the manufacturer. So executives at Aladdin hit on an idea that would harness the newfound popularity of television. They lacquered lunch boxes with striking red paint and added a picture of TV and radio cowboy Hopalong Cassidy on the front.
[J] The company sold 600,000 units the first year. It was a major "Ah-ha!" moment, and a wave of other manufacturers jumped on board to capitalize on new TV shows and movies. "The Partridge Family, the Addams Family, the Six Million Dollar Man, the Bionic Woman—everything that was on television ended up on a lunch box," says Allen Woodall. He's the founder and curator of the Lunch Box Museum in Columbus, Ga. "It was a great marketing tool because [kids] were taking that TV show to school with them, and then when they got home they had them captured back on TV," he says. And yes, you read that right: There is a lunch box museum, right near the Chattahoochee River. Woodall has more than 2,000 items on display. His favorite? The Green Hornet lunch box, because he used to listen to the radio show back in the 1940s.
[L] The new trend was also a great example of planned obsolescence, Woodall adds. Kids would beg for a new lunch box every year to keep up with the newest characters, even if their old lunch box (So long, Ariel!) was perfectly usable.
[M] The metal lunch box craze lasted until the mid-1980s, when plastic (and for a short time, vinyl) took over. Two theories exist as to why. The first—and most likely—is that plastic had simply become cheaper. The second theory—possibly an urban myth—is that concerned parents in several states proposed bans on metal lunch boxes, claiming kids were using them as "weapons" to hit one another. There's a lot on the internet about a state-wide ban in Florida, but a few days worth of digging by a historian at the Florida State Historical Society (thanks, Ben DiBiase!) found no such legislation. Either way, the metal lunch box was out. (Want to know more about that Golden Age of metal lunch boxes? Check out this episode of the Mystery Show podcast, that goes deep, deep down a lunch box-inspired rabbit hole.) A Whole New World The last few decades have brought a new lunch box revolution, of sorts. Plastic boxes begat insulated cloth sacks, and eventually, globalism brought tiffin containers from India and bento boxes from Japan. Even the old metal standby has seen a renaissance. "I don't think the heyday has passed," says D.J. Jayasekara, owner and founder of lunchbox.com, a retailer in Pasadena, Calif. "I think it has evolved. The days of the ready-made, 'you stick it in a lunch box and carry it to school' are kinda done."
[O] The advent of backpacks threw the lunch box scene for a bit of a loop, he adds. Once kids started carrying book bags, that clunky traditional lunch box was hard to fit inside. "But you can't just throw a sandwich in a backpack," Jayasekara says. "It still has to go into a container." That's, in part, why smaller and softer containers have taken off—they fit into backpacks. And don't worry—whether it's a plastic bento box or a cloth bag, lunch containers can still easily be plastered with popular culture. "We sync with the movie industries so we can predict which characters are going to be popular for the coming months," Jayasekara says. "You know, kids are kids."
36.[F] City kids,on the other hand,went home for lunch and came back.
37.[J] The company sold 600, 000 units the first year.
38.[O] The introduction of backpacks changed the lunch box scene a bit,he adds.
39.[C] Lunch boxes have been connecting kids to cartoons and TV shows and super-heroes for decades.
40.[H] And then everything changed in the year of 1950.
41.[L] The new trend was also a great example of planned obsolescence,that is,to design a product so that it will soon become unfashionable or impossible to use and will need replacing.
42.[D] Let's start back at the beginning of the 20th century-the beginning of the lunch box story,really.
43.[A] It was made of shiny,bright pink plastic with a Little Mermaid sticker on the front,and I carried it with me nearly every single day.
44.[M] The metal lunch box craze lasted until the mid-1980s,when plastic took over.
45.[l] But these containers were really durable,lasting years on end.
The Place Where the Poor Once Thrived
[A] This is the land of opportunity. If that weren’t already implied by the landscape—rolling green hills, palm trees, sun-kissed flowers—then it’s evident in the many of stories of people who grew up poor in these sleepy neighborhoods and rose to enormous success. People like Tri Tran, who fled Vietnam on a boat in 1986, showed up in San Jose with nothing, made it to MIT, and then founded the food-delivery start-up Munchery, which is valued at $300 million. “I think that in this land, if you are really determined and focused, you can go pretty far,” he told me.
[B] Kids in San Jose whose families fell in the bottom quintile of income nationally had the best shot in the country at reaching the top quintile.By contrast, just 4.4 percent of poor kids in Charlotte moved up to the top; in Detroit the figure was 5.5 percent. (San Jose, for the purposes of the study, was defined as the San Jose commuting zone, which includes the counties of Santa Clara, Monterey, San Benito, and Santa Cruz.)
[C] San Jose had social mobility comparable to Denmark’s and Canada’s, and bested other progressive cities such as Boston (10.5 percent chance) and Minneapolis (8.5 percent chance). The reasons kids in San Jose performed so well might seem obvious. Some of the world’s most innovative companies are located here, providing opportunities such as the one seized by a 12-year-old Mountain View resident named Steve Jobs when he called William Hewlett to ask for spare parts and subsequently received a summer job.
[D] This is a city of immigrants—38 percent of the city’s population today is foreign-born—and immigrants and their children have historically experienced significant upward mobility in America. The city has long had a large foreign-born population (26.5 percent in 1990), leading to broader diversity, which, the Harvard and Berkeley economists say, is a good predictor of mobility.
[E] Indeed, the streets of San Jose seem, in some ways, to embody the best of America. It’s possible to drive in a matter of minutes from sleek office towers near the airport where people pitch investors on ideas to cul-de-sacs of single-family homes with orange trees in their yards, or to a Vietnamese mall where, on a recent weekday, Vietnamese immigrants clustered in the parking lot celebrating the Lunar New Year by playing dice games. The libraries here offer programs in 17 languages, and there are enclaves of small businesses owned by Vietnamese immigrants, Mexican immigrants, Korean immigrants, and Filipino immigrants, to name a few.
[F] But researchers aren’t sure exactly why poor kids in San Jose did so well. The city has a low prevalence of children growing up in single-parent families, and a low level of concentrated poverty, both factors that usually mean a city allows for good intergenerational mobility. But San Jose also performs poorly on some of the measures correlated with good mobility. It is one of the most unequal places out of the 741 that the researchers measured, and it has high degrees of racial and economic segregation. Its schools underperform based on how much money there is in the area, said Ben Scuderi, a predoctoral fellow at the Equality of Opportunity Project at Harvard, which uses big data to study how to improve economic opportunities for low-income children.
[G] Whether the city still allows for upward mobility of poor kids today, though, is up for debate. Some of the indicators such as income inequality, measured by the Equality of Opportunity Project for the year 2000, have only worsened in the past 16 years.
[H] Some San Jose residents say that as inequality has grown in recent years, upward mobility has become much more difficult to achieve. As Silicon Valley has become home to more successful companies, the flood of people to the area has caused housing prices to skyrocket—median sale price reached $830,000 last year. By most measures, San Jose is no longer a place where low-income, or even middle-income families, can afford to live. Rents in San Jose grew a whopping 42.6 percent between 2006 and 2014, which was the largest increase in the country during that time period. The city has a growing homelessness problem, which it tried to address by shutting down “The Jungle,” one of the largest homeless encampments in the nation, in 2014. Inequality is extreme: The Human Development Index—a measure of life expectancy, education and per capital income—gives East San Jose a score of 4.85 out of 10, while nearby Cupertino, where Apple’s headquarters sit, receives a 9.26. Given this, the future for the region’s poor doesn’t look nearly as bright as it once did.
[I] Leaders in San Jose are determined to make sure that San Jose regains its status as a place where even poor kids can access the resources to succeed. With Silicon Valley in its backyard, it certainly has the chance to do so.
[J] “I think there is a broad consciousness in the Valley that we can do better than to leave thousands of our neighbors behind through a period of extraordinary success,” San Jose Mayor Sam Liccardo told me. But in today’s America—a land of rising inequality, increasing segregation, and stagnating middle-class wages—can the San Jose region really once again become a place of opportunity?
[K] The idea that those at the bottom can rise to the top is central to America’s ideas about itself. That such mobility has become more difficult in San Jose raises questions about the endurance of that foundational belief. After all, if the one-time land of opportunity can’t be fixed, what does that say for the rest of America?
36. According to some people living in San Jose, it has become much harder for the poor to get ahead due to the increased inequality.
原文：[H] Some San Jose residents say that as inequality has grown in recent years, upward mobility has become much more difficult to achieve.
37. In American history, immigrants used to have a good chance to move upward in society.
原文：[D]This is a city of immigrants—38 percent of the city’s population today is foreign-born—and immigrants and their children have historically experienced significant upward mobility in America.
38. If the problems of San Jose can’t be solved, one of America’s fundamental beliefs about itself can be shaken.
原文：[K] The idea that those at the bottom can rise to the top is central to America’s ideas about itself. That raises questions about the endurance of that foundational belief.
39. San Jose was among the best cities in America for popor kids to move up the social ladder.
原文：[B] Kids in San Jose whose families fell in the bottom quintile of income nationally had the best shot in the country at reaching the top quintile.
40. Whether poor kids in San Jose today still have the chance to move upward is questionable.
原文：[G] Whether the city allows for upward mobility of poor kids today, though, is up for debate.
41. San Jose’s officials are resolved to give poor kids access to the resources necessary for success in life.
原文：[I] Leaders in San Jose are determined to make sure that the city regains its status as a place where even poor kids can access the resources to succeed.
42. San Jose appears to manifest some of the best features of America.
原文：[E] Indeed, the streets of San Jose seem , in some says, to embody the best of America.
43. As far as social mobility is concerned, San Jose beat many other progressive cities in America.
原文：[C] San Jose had social mobility comparable to Denmark’s and Canada’s and higher than other progressive cities such as Boston and Minneapolis.
44. Due to some changes like increases in housing prices in San Jose, the prospects for its poor people have dimmed.
原文：[H] Given this, the future for the region’s poor doesn’t look nearly as bright as it once did.
45. Researchers do not have a clear idea why poor children in San Jose achieved such great success several decades ago.
原文：[F] But researchers aren’t sure exactly why poor kids in San Jose did so well.
46. C They did not become popular until the emergence of improved batteries.
47. B The falling prices of ebike batteries.
48. D It will profit from ebike sharing.
49. A Retailers’ refusal to deal in ebikes.
50. D The younger generation’s pursuit of comfortable riding.
51. A To sway public opinion of the impact of human activities on Earth.
52. C It covers more phenomena.
53. D Deliberate choice of words.
54. B For greater precision
55. C Human activities have serious effects on Earth.
Boredom has, paradoxically, become quite interesting to academics lately. In early May, London’s Boring Conference celebrated seven years of delighting in dullness. At this event, people flocked to talks about weather, traffic jams, and vending-machine sounds, among other sleep-inducing topics.
What, exactly, is everybody studying? One widely accepted psychological definition of boredom is “the distasteful experience of wanting, but being unable, to engage in satisfying activity.” But How can you quantify a person’s boredom level and compare it with someone else’s?
In 1986, psychologists introduced the Boredom Proneness Scale, designed to individual’s overall tendency to fell bored. By contrast, the Multidimensional State Boredom Scale, developed in 2008, measures a person’s feelings of boredom in a given situation.
Boredom has been linked to behavior issues including inattentive driving, mindless snacking, excessive drinking, and addictive gambling. In fact, many of us would choose pain over boredom.